Esophageal Cancer: Risk Factors, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Esophageal Cancer Risk Factors

Smoking, alcohol intake, obesity and GERD are common esophageal cancer risk factor. Smoking and alcohol cause squamous cell carcinoma. Obesity and acid reflux are risk factors for adenocarcinoma. Healthy life style can prevent esophagus carcinoma

Esophageal Cancer Symptoms

Dysphagia: First and most common symptom. It is progressive in nature.Initially it is for solid food and gradually to liquid also. Most of these patients present when they develop complete dysphagia

Patient can have chest pain/regurgitation. Anorexia and weight loss are common. Advance carcinoma patients can have bony pain, abdomen distension due to ascites, respiratory distress due to pulmonary effusion

Esophageal Cancer Diagnosis & Investigations

Upper GI Endoscopy : It is done by gastroenterologist and is the investigation of choice. It will show growth or stricture in the esophagus. Biopsy will confirm the diagnosis. Most common type of esophagus carcinoma is adenocarcinoma located in the lower third of esophagus. Squamous cell carcinoma is other type and mainly found in the upper and middle third of esophagus

CECT Chest and upper abdomen : CECT will show the growth in the esophagus, its relation with surrounding structures, any associated lymph nodes, and metastases. It helps in planning of Esophagus Carcinoma 

The recommended first line Esophagus Cancer Treatment is surgery if cancer is resectable. For locally advance tumor pre-operative chemotherapy is given.If patient respond to chemotherapy and tumor become resectable surgery is done. For metastatic disease endoscopic esophageal stent is placed for relief of dysphagia. If endoscopic stenting is not possible feeding jejunostomy is done surgically for nutrition



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